Objectives: To develop a road map towards a harmonized pan-European surveillance system for children and adolescents. Methods: Representatives of five European surveillance systems and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents contributed to the road map through a structured workshop in 2016. Results: A conceptual framework for this road map was developed with seven action points (APs) guiding the successive cross-country harmonization. First, key indicators of health behaviour and their determinants in children and adolescents will be identified (AP1, 2); short screening instruments will be developed and implemented to assess and monitor key indicators (AP3, 4). In parallel, optional supplementary modules could be implemented to provide objective data (AP5). This would allow mutual calibration and improvement of existing instruments before their progressive replacement by more comparable measurement tools (AP6). The establishment of a competence platform is envisaged for guiding the harmonization process (AP7). Conclusions: This approach builds on existing systems, provides comparable key health indicators across European regions, helps to assess temporal trends and—once in place—will facilitate health reporting and monitoring of national and international health targets.