Role of Local and/or Metastasis-directed Therapy in Patients with Hormone-sensitive M1a Prostate Cancer-A Systematic Review

Hilda A. de Barros, Isabeau van Beurden, Matteo Droghetti, Erica A. Wilthagen, Oktay Özman, Andries M. Bergman, Shafak Aluwini, R. Jeroen A. van Moorselaar, Maarten L. Donswijk, Pim J. van Leeuwen, Henk G. van der Poel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


CONTEXT: It remains unclear whether men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (PCa) metastasized to nonregional lymph nodes (M1a) benefit from prostate-directed therapy (PDT) and/or metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize the literature regarding oncological outcomes of de novo and recurrent M1a PCa patients treated with PDT and/or MDT. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched Medline (Ovid), Embase, and Scopus according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines for reports on oncological outcomes of de novo or recurrent hormone-sensitive M1a PCa patients treated with PDT (radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy) and/or MDT (nodal radiotherapy or salvage lymph node dissection) with or without androgen deprivation therapy. A descriptive data synthesis and a methodological quality assessment were performed to evaluate the impact of PDT and/or MDT on survival in M1a PCa patients. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 6136 articles were screened and 24 studies were included in this systematic review. In de novo M1a PCa patients, PDT was associated with improved oncological outcomes compared with no PDT. In recurrent M1a PCa, MDT could delay the need for systemic treatment in a selection of patients, but high-level evidence from prospective phase III randomized controlled trials is still awaited. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review summarized the limited literature data on the management of M1a PCa. Subgroup analyses suggest a role for PDT plus systemic therapy in de novo M1a PCa. MDT to distant nodal metastases delayed the need for systemic therapy in recurrent disease, but robust data are lacking. The predominantly retrospective nature of the included studies and significant heterogeneity in study designs limit the strength of evidence. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed the treatment of patients with prostate cancer that has spread to lymph nodes outside the pelvis without metastases in other organ systems. There is evidence that treatment of the primary prostate tumor improves outcomes in well-selected patients and that treatment targeting distant lymph node metastases can delay the start of systemic treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-27
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Urology Oncology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • Distant lymph nodes
  • Local treatment
  • M1a
  • Metastasis-directed treatment
  • Prostate cancer

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