Severity of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Neurodevelopmental Outcome at 2 and 5 Years Corrected Age

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Objective: To evaluate the association between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity and risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years and 5 years corrected age and to examine whether this association changes over time. Study design: This single-center retrospective cohort study included patients with a gestational age <30 weeks surviving to 36 weeks postmenstrual age, divided into groups according to BPD severity. NDI was defined as having cognitive or motor abilities below −1 SD, cerebral palsy, or a hearing or a visual impairment. The association was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model analysis, adjusting for known confounders for NDI, and mixed-model analysis. Results: Of the 790 surviving infants (15% diagnosed with mild BPD, 9% with moderate BPD, and 10% with severe BPD), 88% and 82% were longitudinally assessed at 2 years and 5 years corrected age, respectively. The mixed-model analysis showed a statistically significant increase in NDI at all levels of BPD severity compared with infants with no BPD, and a 5-fold increased risk in NDI was seen from 2 years to 5 years corrected age in all degrees of BPD severity. The strength of this association between NDI and BPD severity did not change over time. Conclusions: Increased BPD severity is associated with increased risk of NDI at both 2 years and 5 years corrected age. The absolute incidence of NDI increased significantly from 2 years to 5 years corrected age for all BPD severity categories, but this increased risk was similar at both time points in each category.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-46.e2
JournalJournal of pediatrics
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

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