Sex Differences in Outcome of Trauma Patients Presented with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Cohort Study

Elise Beijer, Stefan F. van Wonderen, Wietse P. Zuidema, Marieke C. Visser, Michael J. R. Edwards, Michael H. J. Verhofstad, Tjarda N. Tromp, Charissa E. van den Brom, Esther M. M. van Lieshout, Frank W. Bloemers, Leo M. G. Geeraedts

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The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between sex and outcome in trauma patients presented with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A retrospective multicenter study was performed in trauma patients aged ≥ 16 years who presented with severe TBI (Head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 4) over a 4-year-period. Subgroup analyses were performed for ages 16–44 and ≥45 years. Also, patients with isolated severe TBI (other AIS ≤ 2) were assessed, likewise, with subgroup analysis for age. Sex differences in mortality, Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), ICU admission/length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and mechanical ventilation (MV) were examined. A total of 1566 severe TBI patients were included (831 patients with isolated TBI). Crude analysis shows an association between female sex and lower ICU admission rates, shorter ICU/hospital LOS, and less frequent and shorter MV in severe TBI patients ≥ 45 years. After adjusting, female sex appears to be associated with shorter ICU/hospital LOS. Sex differences in mortality and GOS were not found. In conclusion, this study found sex differences in patient outcomes following severe TBI, potentially favoring (older) females, which appear to indicate shorter ICU/hospital LOS (adjusted analysis). Large prospective studies are warranted to help unravel sex differences in outcomes after severe TBI.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6892
JournalJournal of clinical medicine
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023


  • ICU
  • TBI
  • mechanical ventilation
  • mortality
  • sex dimorphism

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