Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous collection of diseases that have in common primary functional and struc-tural abnormalities of the heart muscle, often genetically determined. The most effective categorization of cardiomyopathies is based on the presenting phenotype, with hypertrophic, dilated, arrhythmogenic, and restrictive cardiomyopathy as the proto-types. Sex modulates the prevalence, morpho-functional manifestations and clinical course of cardiomyopathies. Aspects as diverse as ion channel expression and left ventricular remodeling differ in male and female patients with myocardial disease, although the reasons for this are poorly understood. Moreover, clinical differences may also result from complex societal/en-vironmental discrepancies between sexes that may disadvantage women. This review provides a state-of-the-art appraisal of the influence of sex on cardiomyopathies, highlighting the many gaps in knowledge and open research questions.
- heart disease in women
- heart failure