Standardized measurement of quality of upper limb movement after stroke: Consensus-based core recommendations from the Second Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable

G. Kwakkel, E. E. H. van Wegen, J. H. Burridge, C. J. Winstein, L. E. H. van Dokkum, M. Alt Murphy, M. F. Levin, J. W. Krakauer

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The second Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable “metrics” task force developed consensus around the recognized need to add kinematic and kinetic movement quantification to its core recommendations for standardized measurements of sensorimotor recovery in stroke trials. Specifically, we focused on measurement of the quality of upper limb movement. We agreed that the recommended protocols for measurement should be conceptually rigorous, reliable, valid and responsive to change. The recommended measurement protocols include four performance assays (i.e. 2D planar reaching, finger individuation, grip strength, and precision grip at body function level) and one functional task (3D drinking task at activity level) that address body function and activity respectively. This document describes the criteria for assessment and makes recommendations about the type of technology that should be used for reliable and valid movement capture. Standardization of kinematic measurement protocols will allow pooling of participant data across sites, thereby increasing sample size aiding meta-analyses of published trials, more detailed exploration of recovery profiles, the generation of new research questions with testable hypotheses, and development of new treatment approaches focused on impairment. We urge the clinical and research community to consider adopting these recommendations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)783-791
Number of pages9
JournalInternational journal of stroke
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • Stroke
  • biomechanics
  • consensus
  • measurement
  • recovery
  • rehabilitation
  • upper extremity

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