Steady-state free precession with myocardial tagging: CSPAMM in a single breathhold

Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg, Joost P.A. Kuijer, J. Tim Marcus, Robert M. Heethaar

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A method is presented that combines steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine imaging with myocardial tagging. Before the tagging preparation at each ECG-R wave, the steady-state magnetization is stored as longitudinal magnetization by an α/2 flip-back pulse. Imaging is continued immediately after tagging preparation, using linearly increasing startup angles (LISA) with a rampup over 10 pulses. Interleaved segmented k-space ordering is used to prevent artifacts from the increasing signal during the LISA rampup. First, this LISA-SSFP method was evaluated regarding ghost artifacts from the steady-state interruption by comparing LISA with an α/2 startup method. Next, LISA-SSFP was compared with spoiled gradient echo (SGRE) imaging, regarding tag contrast-to-noise ratio and tag persistence. The measurements were performed in phantoms and in six subjects applying breathhold cine imaging with tagging (temporal resolution 51 ms). The results show that ghost artifacts are negligible for the LISA method. Compared to the SGRE reference, LISA-SSFP was two times faster, with a slightly better tag contrast-to-noise. Additionally, the tags persisted 126 ms longer with LISA-SSFP than with SGRE imaging. The high efficiency of LISA-SSFP enables the acquisition of complementary tagged (CSPAMM) images in a single breathhold.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)722-730
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2003


  • CSPAMM myocardial tagging
  • MRI
  • Magnetization preparation
  • SGRE
  • SSFP
  • Tag contrast

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