Stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy for peripheral lung tumors

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We studied the benefits of using stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) for delivery of SABR in peripherally located lung tumors.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-three patients (25 peripheral lung tumors) underwent SMART in 3-8 fractions on an MR Linac or Cobalt-60 system. Before each fraction, a breath-hold MR scan was acquired, followed by on-table plan adaptation based on the anatomy-of-the-day. Breath-hold gated delivery was performed under continuous MR-guidance using an in-room monitor. Benefits of on-table adaptation were studied by comparing 112 «predicted» plans, which are the baseline plans recalculated on the anatomy-of-the-day, with the on-table reoptimized plans.

RESULTS: The full SMART procedure took a median of 48 and 62 minutes on the MR Linac and Cobalt-60 system, respectively. Median SMART-PTVs were 9.5 cm3 (range, 3.1-55.6). In 14 patients who had undergone a free-breathing 4DCT, SMART-PTVs measured 53.7% (range, 31.9-75.0) of PTVs that would have been generated using a motion-encompassing internal target volume approach. On-table adaptation improved prescription dose coverage of the PTV from a median of 92.1% in predicted plans, to 95.0% in reoptimized ones, thereby increasing the proportion of fractions delivering ≥100 Gy (BED10Gy) to 95% of PTV, from 90.2% to 100.0%.

CONCLUSION: Delivery of gated breath-hold SABR using MR-guidance resulted in significantly smaller target volumes than would have been the case with an ITV-based approach. Although on-table adaptation ensured delivery of ablative doses in all fractions, the dosimetric benefits were modest, suggesting that daily online plan adaptation may not benefit most patients with peripheral lung tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-52
Number of pages7
JournalRadiotherapy and oncology
Early online date8 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Adaptive radiotherapy
  • Lung cancer
  • MR-guided radiation therapy
  • SABR

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