Strong protective effect of the APOL1 p.N264K variant against G2-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and kidney disease

Yask Gupta, David J. Friedman, Michelle T. McNulty, Atlas Khan, Brandon Lane, Chen Wang, Juntao Ke, Gina Jin, Benjamin Wooden, Andrea L. Knob, Tze Y. Lim, Gerald B. Appel, Kinsie Huggins, Lili Liu, Adele Mitrotti, Megan C. Stangl, Andrew Bomback, Rik Westland, Monica Bodria, Maddalena MarasaNing Shang, David J. Cohen, Russell J. Crew, William Morello, Pietro Canetta, Jai Radhakrishnan, Jeremiah Martino, Qingxue Liu, Wendy K. Chung, Angelica Espinoza, Yuan Luo, Wei-Qi Wei, Qiping Feng, Chunhua Weng, Yilu Fang, Iftikhar J. Kullo, Mohammadreza Naderian, Nita Limdi, Marguerite R. Irvin, Hemant Tiwari, Sumit Mohan, Maya Rao, Geoffrey K. Dube, Ninad S. Chaudhary, Orlando M. Gutiérrez, Suzanne E. Judd, Mary Cushman, Leslie A. Lange, Ethan M. Lange, Daniel L. Bivona, Miguel Verbitsky, Cheryl A. Winkler, Jeffrey B. Kopp, Dominick Santoriello, Ibrahim Batal, S. rgio Veloso Brant Pinheiro, Eduardo Araújo Oliveira, Ana Cristina Simoes e Silva, Isabella Pisani, Enrico Fiaccadori, Fangming Lin, Loreto Gesualdo, Antonio Amoroso, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Vivette D. D’Agati, Riccardo Magistroni, Eimear E. Kenny, Ruth J. F. Loos, Giovanni Montini, Friedhelm Hildebrandt, Dirk S. Paul, Slavé Petrovski, David B. Goldstein, Matthias Kretzler, Rasheed Gbadegesin, Ali G. Gharavi, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Matthew G. Sampson, Martin R. Pollak, Simone Sanna-Cherchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


African Americans have a significantly higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease, especially focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -, than European Americans. Two coding variants (G1 and G2) in the APOL1 gene play a major role in this disparity. While 13% of African Americans carry the high-risk recessive genotypes, only a fraction of these individuals develops FSGS or kidney failure, indicating the involvement of additional disease modifiers. Here, we show that the presence of the APOL1 p.N264K missense variant, when co-inherited with the G2 APOL1 risk allele, substantially reduces the penetrance of the G1G2 and G2G2 high-risk genotypes by rendering these genotypes low-risk. These results align with prior functional evidence showing that the p.N264K variant reduces the toxicity of the APOL1 high-risk alleles. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the mechanisms of APOL1-associated nephropathy, as well as for the clinical management of individuals with high-risk genotypes that include the G2 allele.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7836
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

Cite this