Surgical outcomes of testicular prostheses implantation in transgender men with a history of prosthesis extrusion or infection

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Testicular prostheses implantation may be used for neoscrotal augmentation in transgender men. In current literature, explantation rates range from 0.6% to 30% and most are a result of infection or extrusion. Information on the surgical path of individuals after prosthesis explantation is scarce. Aim: To assess the frequency and success rate of testicular prosthesis implantation after previous explantation due to infection or extrusion. Methods: All transgender men who underwent testicular prosthesis explantation between January 1991 and December 2018 were retrospectively identified from a departmental database. A retrospective chart study was conducted, recording demographics, surgical and prosthesis characteristics, reoperations, and outcomes. Results: A total of 41 transgender men were included who underwent testicular prosthesis explantation in the study time period. Of these, 28 (68%) opted for new prosthesis implantation. Most explanted prosthesis had a volume ≥30cc and were replaced with an equally sized one. The postoperative course was uneventful in 19 out of 28 (68%) individuals. Explantation of one or both prostheses occurred in 7 out of 28 (25%) individuals, because of infection (n = 3, 11%) or extrusion (n = 4, 14%). Patients that experienced complications had more often a history of smoking (p = 0.049). The explantation rate was lower if a smaller or lighter prosthesis was reimplanted (p = 0.020). Discussion: Most patients opt for testicular prosthesis implantation after previous explantation due to extrusion or infection. Explantation rates are higher than after the primary implantation procedure. Results of current study can be used to inform individuals on postoperative outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-336
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Transgender Health
Issue number3
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Transgender men
  • clinical outcomes
  • metaidioplasty
  • neoscrotal augmentation
  • phalloplasty

Cite this