Systemic immune response in whiplash injury and ankle sprain: elevated IL-6 and IL-10

J Kivioja, V Ozenci, L Rinaldi, M Kouwenhoven, U Lindgren, H Link

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Whiplash injury and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are significant problems of modern society. Numerous attempts have been made to characterize the nature of whiplash injury. Whether the immune system is involved during the disease process is not known. In a prospective study, using enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays, we examined numbers of blood mononuclear cells (MNC) secreting pro- (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in patients with WAD and, for reference, patients with ankle sprain and multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. An immune response reflected by elevated numbers of TNF-alpha- and IL-10-secreting blood MNC was observed in patients with WAD examined within 3 days compared to 14 days after the whiplash injury. The patients with WAD examined within 3 days after the injury had also higher numbers of IL-6 and IL-10 secreting blood MNC compared to healthy subjects. The alterations of cytokine profiles observed in WAD were also observed in patients with ankle sprain when examined within 3 days after trauma. In contrast, there were no differences for cytokine profiles between patients with WAD examined 14 days after the whiplash injury and healthy subjects. Relatively minor trauma like WAD and ankle sprain are associated with a systemic dysregulation in numbers of cells secreting pro- as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-12
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2001


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ankle Injuries/immunology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-10/biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6/biosynthesis
  • Kinetics
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis/immunology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sprains and Strains/immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
  • Whiplash Injuries/immunology

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