The association between patient and disease characteristics, and the risk of disease progression in patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance

Matthijs Duijn, Theo M. de Reijke, Kurdo Barwari, Marias J. Hagens, Sybren P. Rynja, Jos Immerzeel, Jelle O. Barentsz, Auke Jager

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Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify and assess patient and disease characteristics associated with an increased risk of disease progression in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance. Methods: We studied patients with low-risk (ISUP GG1) or favorable intermediate-risk (ISUP GG2) PCa. All patients had at least one repeat biopsy. Disease progression was the primary outcome of this study, based on pathological upgrading. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to evaluate the association between covariates and disease progression. Results: In total, 240 men were included, of whom 198 (82.5%) were diagnosed with low-risk PCa and 42 (17.5%) with favorable intermediate-risk PCa. Disease progression was observed in 42.9% (103/240) of men. Index lesion > 10 mm (HR = 2.85; 95% CI 1.74–4.68; p < 0.001), MRI (m)T-stage 2b/2c (HR = 2.52; 95% CI 1.16–5.50; p = 0.02), highest PI-RADS score of 5 (HR 3.05; 95% CI 1.48–6.28; p = 0.002) and a higher PSA level (HR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01–1.11; p = 0.014) at baseline were associated with disease progression on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed no significant baseline predictors of disease progression. Conclusion: In AS patients with low-risk or favorable intermediate-risk PCa, diameter of index lesion, MRI (m)T-stage, height of the PI-RADS score and the PSA level at baseline are significant predictors of disease progression to first repeat biopsy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number87
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2024


  • Active surveillance
  • Disease progression
  • Intermediate-risk prostate cancer
  • Low-risk prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Switching to active treatment

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