The Choice between Advanced Therapies for Parkinson's Disease Patients: Why, What, and When?

Joke M. Dijk, Alberto J. Espay, Regina Katzenschlager, Rob M. A. de Bie

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


When oral dopaminergic medication falls short in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, patients are left with motor response fluctuations and dyskinesias that may have a large impact on functioning in daily life. They may benefit from one of the currently available advanced treatments, namely deep brain stimulation, continuous levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel, and continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion. The indication, choice between the separate advanced treatments and the timing can be challenging and will be discussed against the background of the progressive nature of the disease, the heterogeneity of disease manifestation and variable patient characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S65-S73
JournalJournal of Parkinson s disease
Issue numbers1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Parkinson's disease
  • apomorphine
  • carbidopa
  • deep brain stimulation
  • external infusion pumps
  • levodopa drug combination
  • parenteral infusions
  • review literature

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