Immunolabeling is a technique, which has recently been introduced to enhance the quality of developed fingermarks and subsequently strengthen the evidential value. The effect of this method on subsequent DNA analysis, however, has not been explored yet. Therefore, the current pilot study aimed to determine whether STR profiling is possible after immunolabeling. Since immunolabeling involves washing steps which could reduce DNA quantities, the use of different fixatives including methanol, formaldehyde and universal molecular fixative (UMFIX) were investigated. STR profiles from the (immunolabeled) fingermarks were generated after four days and four weeks by a direct PCR method to enable comparison of relatively fresh and old fingermarks. The fingermarks were deposited on diverse forensically relevant substrates, including glass, metal and tile. STR profiles could be recovered for all tested fixatives with no significant difference in performance. However, the mean number of detected alleles was the highest when methanol was used for fixation. Furthermore, immunolabeling on aged fingermarks (4 weeks) was also possible, but the number of detected alleles showed a non-significant decrease. DNA could be recovered from deposits on all substrates, of which glass showed the highest mean number of detected alleles followed by metal and tile.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102485
JournalForensic science international. Genetics
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • Ageing
  • DNA
  • Direct STR amplification
  • Fingermark visualization techniques
  • Fingerprints
  • Immunolabeling

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