The Dietary and Non-Dietary Management of Osteoporosis in Adult-Onset Celiac Disease: Current Status and Practical Guidance

Abdulbaqi Al-Toma, Amin Herman, Willem F. Lems, Chris J. J. Mulder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Impaired bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent complication of adult-onset celiac disease (CeD). This is usually due to malabsorption of nutrients, changes in bone metabolism in association with inflammation, and to a lesser extent, decreased overall physical health and mobility. This review aims to highlight the current status concerning surveillance, prevention, and treatment strategies for bone disease in CeD. A practical guidance on these matters is suggested. The available published research on the prevention and treatment of decreased BMD in relation to CeD is scarce. In general, publications were based on expert opinions or extrapolation from studies on postmenopausal women or inflammatory bowel disease. Optimal dietary treatment and an adequate supply of calcium and vitamin D are the cornerstones for the reduction in fracture risk in patients with CeD. In adults with low BMD or fragility fractures, CeD needs to be considered and specifically approached. When osteoporosis is documented, start treatment with an antiresorptive agent; these agents are proven to result in a long-term reduction in fracture risk in high-risk individuals. However, there are some important differences between the management of male and female patients, particularly premenopausal women, that need to be addressed. In patients with persisting diarrhea and malabsorption, parenteral medications may be preferable. Future research specifically focusing on celiac disease and the associated disorders in bone mineralization is mandatory to provide evidence-based recommendations in this field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4554
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022


  • bone mineral density
  • celiac disease
  • fracture
  • gluten-free diet
  • malabsorption
  • osteoporosis
  • prevention

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