The HF-AF ENERGY Trial: Nicotinamide Riboside for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients

Lisa Pool, Paul Knops, Olivier C. Manintveld, Jasper J. Brugts, Dominic A. M. J. Theuns, Bianca J. J. M. Brundel, Natasja M. S. de Groot

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Background: The presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction is common and associated with an increased risk of stroke, hospitalization and mortality. Recent research findings indicate that a reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels results in mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and consequently cardiomyocyte impairment in experimental and clinical HF and AF. The HF-AF ENERGY trial aims to investigate the cardioprotective effects of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) treatment in ischemic heart disease patients diagnosed with AF. Study design: The HF-AF ENERGY trial is a prospective intervention study. The study consists of a (retrospective) 4 months observation period and a 4 months intervention period. The cardioprotective effect of NR on AF burden is investigated by remote monitoring software of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), which enables continuous atrial rhythm monitoring detection. Cardiac dimension and function are examined by echocardiography. Laboratory blood analysis is performed to determine mitochondrial function markers and energy metabolism. All the study parameters are assessed at two fixed time points (pre- and post-treatment). Pre- and post-treatment outcomes are compared to determine the effects of NR treatment on AF burden, mitochondrial function markers and energy metabolism. Conclusion: The HF-AF ENERGY trial investigates the cardioprotective effects of NR on AF burden and whether NR normalizes blood-based mitochondrial function markers and energy metabolites of the NAD metabolome in ischemic heart disease patients diagnosed with AF. The study outcomes elucidate whether NAD+ metabolism can be used as a future therapy for HF patients with AF.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2022

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