The Human Body Model versus conventional gait models for kinematic gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy

E. Flux, M. M. van der Krogt, P. Cappa, M. Petrarca, K. Desloovere, J. Harlaar

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24 Citations (Scopus)


With the rise of biofeedback in gait training in cerebral palsy there is a need for real-time measurements of gait kinematics. The Human Body Model (HBM) is a recently developed model, optimized for the real-time computing of kinematics. This study evaluated differences between HBM and two commonly used models for clinical gait analysis: the Newington Model, also known as Plug-in-Gait (PiG), and the calibrated anatomical system technique (CAST). Twenty-five children with cerebral palsy participated. 3D instrumented gait analyses were performed in three laboratories across Europe, using a comprehensive retroreflective marker set comprising three models: HBM, PiG and CAST. Gait kinematics from the three models were compared using statistical parametric mapping, and RMSE values were used to quantify differences. The minimal clinically significant difference was set at 5°. Sagittal plane differences were mostly less than 5°. For frontal and transverse planes, differences between all three models for almost all segment and joint angles exceeded the value of minimal clinical significance. Which model holds the most accurate information remains undecided since none of the three models represents a ground truth. Meanwhile, it can be concluded that all three models are equivalent in representing sagittal plane gait kinematics in clinical gait analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102585
JournalHuman movement science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Biomechanics
  • Clinical movement analysis
  • Gait analysis
  • Kinematics
  • Marker models
  • Rehabilitation

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