The Use of Fecal Calprotectin Testing in Paediatric Disorders: A Position Paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Gastroenterology Committee

Carmen Ribes Koninckx, Ester Donat, Marc A. Benninga, Ilse J. Broekaert, Frederic Gottrand, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Paolo Lionetti, Erasmo Miele, Rok Orel, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Corina Pienar, Michela G. Schäppi, Michael Wilschanski, Nikhil Thapar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to review the evidence regarding the clinical use and value of fecal calprotectin (FC) measurements in different gastrointestinal disorders in children. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until October 31, 2019. Subtopics were identified and each assigned to individual authors. RESULTS: A total of 28 recommendations were voted on using the nominal voting technique. Recommendations are given related to sampling, measurement methods, and results interpretation. The 14 authors anonymously voted on each recommendation using a 9-point scale (1 strongly disagree to 9 fully agree). Consensus was considered achieved if at least 75% of the authors voted 6, 7, 8, or 9. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus was reached for all recommendations. Limitations for the use of FC in clinical practice include variability in extraction methodology, performance of test kits as well as the need to establish local reference ranges because of the influence of individual factors, such as age, diet, microbiota, and drugs. The main utility of FC measurement at present is in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as to differentiate it from functional gastrointestinal disorders (FAPDs). FC, however, has neither utility in the diagnosis of infantile colic nor to differentiate between functional and organic constipation. A rise in FC concentration, may alert to the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis and help identifying gastrointestinal involvement in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. FC measurement is of little value in Cow's Milk Protein Allergy, coeliac disease (CD), and cystic fibrosis. FC does neither help to distinguish bacterial from viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE), nor to diagnose Helicobacter Pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), acute appendicitis (AA), or intestinal polyps.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-640
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Volume72
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

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