The vulvar cancer risk in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: A systematic review

F. line O. Voss, Nikki B. Thuijs, Ravi F. M. Vermeulen, Erica A. Wilthagen, Marc van Beurden, Maaike C. G. Bleeker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN) is the precursor of human papil-lomavirus (HPV)-independent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Given the rare incidence of dVIN, limited information on the exact cancer risk is available. We systematically reviewed the primary and recurrent VSCC risk in patients with dVIN, as well as the time to cancer development. A systematic search was performed up to July 2021 according to the PRISMA guidelines. Five review-ers independently screened articles on title, abstract and full text, followed by critical appraisal of selected articles using the Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool. Of the 455 screened articles, 7 were included for analysis. The absolute risk for primary VSCC in dVIN varied between 33 and 86%, with a median time to progression to VSCC of 9–23 months. The risk of developing recurrent VSCC in dVIN associated VSCC was 32–94%, with a median time to recurrence of 13–32 months. In conclu-sion, patients with dVIN have a high risk of developing primary and recurrent VSCC with a short time to cancer progression. Increased awareness, timely recognition, aggressive treatment and close follow-up of HPV-independent vulvar conditions including dVIN is therefore strongly recommended.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6170
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Absolute risk
  • DVIN
  • Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Natural course
  • Recurrent risk
  • Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

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