Thrombolytic Agents: Nanocarriers in Controlled Release

Soodabeh Hassanpour, Han-Jun Kim, Arezoo Saadati, Peyton Tebon, Chengbin Xue, Floor W. van den Dolder, Jai Thakor, Behzad Baradaran, Jafar Mosafer, Amir Baghbanzadeh, Natan Roberto de Barros, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Kang Ju Lee, Junmin Lee, Shiming Zhang, Wujin Sun, Hyun-Jong Cho, Samad Ahadian, Nureddin Ashammakhi, Mehmet R. DokmeciAhad Mokhtarzadeh, Ali Khademhosseini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Thrombosis is a life-threatening pathological condition in which blood clots form in blood vessels, obstructing or interfering with blood flow. Thrombolytic agents (TAs) are enzymes that can catalyze the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin to dissolve blood clots. The plasmin formed by TAs breaks down fibrin clots into soluble fibrin that finally dissolves thrombi. Several TAs have been developed to treat various thromboembolic diseases, such as pulmonary embolisms, acute myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, and extensive coronary emboli. However, systemic TA administration can trigger non-specific activation that can increase the incidence of bleeding. Moreover, protein-based TAs are rapidly inactivated upon injection resulting in the need for large doses. To overcome these limitations, various types of nanocarriers have been introduced that enhance the pharmacokinetic effects by protecting the TA from the biological environment and targeting the release into coagulation. The nanocarriers show increasing half-life, reducing side effects, and improving overall TA efficacy. In this work, the recent advances in various types of TAs and nanocarriers are thoroughly reviewed. Various types of nanocarriers, including lipid-based, polymer-based, and metal-based nanoparticles are described, for the targeted delivery of TAs. This work also provides insights into issues related to the future of TA development and successful clinical translation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2001647
Issue number40
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes

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