TLR3 preconditioning induces anti-inflammatory and anti-ictogenic effects in mice mediated by the IRF3/IFN-β axis

C. Kostoula, T. Shaker, M. Cerovic, I. Craparotta, S. Marchini, E. Butti, R. Pascente, V. Iori, C. Garlanda, E. Aronica, G. Martino, T. Ravizza, L. Carmant, A. Vezzani

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was previously shown to contribute to the generation of epileptic seizures in rodents by evoking a proinflammatory response in the forebrain. This suggests that TLR3 blockade may provide therapeutic effects in epilepsy. We report that brain activation of TLR3 using the synthetic receptor ligand Poly I:C may also result in remarkable dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on acute seizures in mice without inducing inflammation. These inhibitory effects are associated with reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus as shown by a decrease in the population spike amplitude of CA1 pyramidal neurons following Schaffer collaterals stimulation. TLR3 activation which results in seizure inhibition does not evoke NF-kB-dependent inflammatory molecules or morphological activation of glia, however, it induces the alternative interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)-3/IFN-β signaling pathway. IFN-β reproduced the inhibitory effects of Poly I:C on neuronal excitability in hippocampal slices. Seizure inhibition attained with activation the TLR3-IRF3/IFN-β axis should be carefully considered when TLR3 are targeted for therapeutic purposes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)598-607
JournalBrain, behavior, and immunity
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

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