Translation of the eHealth Impact Questionnaire for a Population of Dutch Electronic Health Users: Validation Study: Validation Study

Koen Ilja Neijenhuijs, Anja van der Hout, Evalien Veldhuijzen, Gwendolijne G. M. Scholten-Peeters, Cornelia F. van Uden-Kraan, Pim Cuijpers, Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw

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BACKGROUND: The eHealth Impact Questionnaire (eHIQ) provides a standardized method to measure attitudes of electronic health (eHealth) users toward eHealth. It has previously been validated in a population of eHealth users in the United Kingdom and consists of 2 parts and 5 subscales. Part 1 measures attitudes toward eHealth in general and consists of the subscales attitudes towards online health information (5 items) and attitudes towards sharing health experiences online (6 items). Part 2 measures the attitude toward a particular eHealth application and consists of the subscales confidence and identification (9 items), information and presentation (8 items), and understand and motivation (9 items). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to translate and validate the eHIQ in a Dutch population of eHealth users. METHODS: The eHIQ was translated and validated in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments criteria. The validation comprised 3 study samples, with a total of 1287 participants. Structural validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory factor analyses (EFAs; all 3 samples). Internal consistency was assessed using hierarchical omega (all 3 samples). Test-retest reliability was assessed after 2 weeks, using 2-way intraclass correlation coefficients (sample 1). Measurement error was assessed by calculating the smallest detectable change (sample 1). Convergent and divergent validity were assessed using correlations with the remaining measures (all 3 samples). A graded response model was fit, and item information curves were plotted to describe the information provided by items across item trait levels (all 3 samples). RESULTS: The original factor structure showed a bad fit in all 3 study samples. EFAs showed a good fit for a modified factor structure in the first study sample. This factor structure was subsequently tested in samples 2 and 3 and showed acceptable to good fits. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity were acceptable to good for both the original as the modified factor structure, except for test-retest reliability of one of the original subscales and the 2 derivative subscales in the modified factor structure. The graded response model showed that some items underperformed in both the original and modified factor structure. CONCLUSIONS: The Dutch version of the eHIQ (eHIQ-NL) shows a different factor structure compared with the original English version. Part 1 of the eHIQ-NL consists of 3 subscales: attitudes towards online health information (5 items), comfort with sharing health experiences online (3 items), and usefulness of sharing health experiences online (3 items). Part 2 of the eHIQ-NL consists of 3 subscales: motivation and confidence to act (10 items), information and presentation (13 items), and identification (3 items).
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13408
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • e-Health Impact Questionnaire
  • eHealth
  • evaluation
  • psychometrics

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