Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed young individuals in Kampala

Nicaise Ndembi, Raph L. Hamers, Kim C.E. Sigaloff, Frederick Lyagoba, Brian Magambo, Bridget Nanteza, Christine Watera, Pontiano Kaleebu, Tobias F. Rinke De Wit

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59 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To assess the emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance (TDR) in Kampala, Uganda, 10 years after the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to compare with a previous survey among antenatal clinic attendees in 2007 (reporting 0% TDR). Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among newly HIV-1 diagnosed, antiretroviral-naive young adults attending two large voluntary counseling and testing centers within the geographic area of Kampala. Methods: Proxy criteria for recent HIV-1 infection were used as defined by the WHO. Population sequencing of the pol gene was performed on plasma samples with HIV-1 RNA at least 1000 copies/ml. Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were identified according to the 2009 WHO list for surveillance of TDR. HIV-1 subtypes were designated using maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Genotypic test results were obtained for 70 of 77 (90.9%) participants. SDRMs were identified in six samples yielding a prevalence of TDR of 8.6% (95% confidence interval 3.2-17.7%). Two had SDRMs to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (D67G and L210W), three had SDRMs to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (G190A, G190S, and K101E), and one had SDRMs to protease inhibitors (N88D). Frequencies of HIV-1 subtypes were A (36/70, 51.4%), C (two of 70; 2.9%), D (23/70, 32.9%), and unique recombinant forms (nine of 70, 12.9%). Conclusion: This repeated survey suggests an increase in TDR in Kampala, compared with a previous survey. This finding justifies increased vigilance with respect to surveillance of TDR in areas in Africa where ART programs are rolled-out.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-910
Number of pages6
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 24 Apr 2011


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • HIV-1
  • Uganda
  • subtype
  • surveillance
  • transmitted drug resistance

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