Treatment sequences and drug costs from diagnosis to death in multiple myeloma

M. R. Seefat, D. G. J. Cucchi, K. Groen, M. L. Donker, K. G. van der Hem, M. Westerman, A. M. Gerrits, A. Beeker, N. W. C. J. van de Donk, H. M. Blommestein, S. Zweegman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Novel therapies for multiple myeloma (MM) have improved patient survival, but their high costs strain healthcare budgets. End-of-life phases of treatment are generally the most expensive, however, these high costs may be less justifiable in the context of a less pronounced clinical benefit. To manage drug expenses effectively, detailed information on end-of-life drug administration and costs are crucial. In this retrospective study, we analysed treatment sequences and drug costs from 96 MM patients in the Netherlands who died between January 2017 and July 2019. Patients received up to 16 lines of therapy (median overall survival: 56.5 months), with average lifetime costs of €209 871 (€3111/month; range: €3942–€776 185) for anti-MM drugs. About 85% of patients received anti-MM treatment in the last 3 months before death, incurring costs of €20 761 (range: €70–€50 122; 10% of total). Half of the patients received anti-MM treatment in the last 14 days, mainly fully oral regimens (66%). End-of-life treatment costs are substantial despite limited survival benefits. The use of expensive treatment options is expected to increase costs further. These data serve as a reference point for future cost studies, and further research is needed to identify factors predicting the efficacy and clinical benefit of continuing end-of-life therapy.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean journal of haematology
Early online date11 Oct 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Oct 2023


  • clinical practice
  • cost
  • cost-effectiveness
  • end-of-life
  • multiple myeloma
  • terminal
  • treatment

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