Validation of a new box trainer-related tracking device: the TrEndo

P.J. van Empel, L.B. van Rijssen, J.P. Commandeur, M.G.E. Verdam, J.A.F. Huirne, F. Scheele, H.J. Bonjer, W.J.H.J. Meijerink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


There is an increasing demand for structured objective ex vivo training and assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills prior to implementation of these skills in practice. The aim of this study was to establish the internal validity of the TrEndo, a motion-tracking device, for implementation on a laparoscopic box trainer. Face validity and content validity were addressed through a structured questionnaire. To assess construct validity, participants were divided into an expert group and a novice group and performed two basic laparoscopic tasks. The TrEndo recorded five motion analysis parameters (MAPs) and time. Participants demonstrated a high regard for face and content validity. All recorded MAPs differed significantly between experts and novices after performing a square knot. Overall, the TrEndo correctly assigned group membership in 84.7 and 95.7% of cases based on two laparoscopic tasks. Face, content, and construct validities of the TrEndo were established. The TrEndo holds real potential as a (home) training device
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2346-2352
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • international

Cite this