Validity and inter-observer reliability of subjective hand-arm vibration assessments

Pieter Coenen, Margriet Formanoy, Marjolein Douwes, Tim Bosch, Heleen de Kraker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Exposure to mechanical vibrations at work (e.g., due to handling powered tools) is a potential occupational risk as it may cause upper extremity complaints. However, reliable and valid assessment methods for vibration exposure at work are lacking. Measuring hand-arm vibration objectively is often difficult and expensive, while often used information provided by manufacturers lacks detail. Therefore, a subjective hand-arm vibration assessment method was tested on validity and inter-observer reliability. In an experimental protocol, sixteen tasks handling powered tools were executed by two workers. Hand-arm vibration was assessed subjectively by 16 observers according to the proposed subjective assessment method. As a gold standard reference, hand-arm vibration was measured objectively using a vibration measurement device. Weighted κ's were calculated to assess validity, intra-class-correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability. Inter-observer reliability of the subjective assessments depicting the agreement among observers can be expressed by an ICC of 0.708 (0.511-0.873). The validity of the subjective assessments as compared to the gold-standard reference can be expressed by a weighted κ of 0.535 (0.285-0.785). Besides, the percentage of exact agreement of the subjective assessment compared to the objective measurement was relatively low (i.e., 52% of all tasks). This study shows that subjectively assessed hand-arm vibrations are fairly reliable among observers and moderately valid. This assessment method is a first attempt to use subjective risk assessments of hand-arm vibration. Although, this assessment method can benefit from some future improvement, it can be of use in future studies and in field-based ergonomic assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1257-62
Number of pages6
JournalApplied ergonomics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014


  • Adult
  • Arm
  • Construction Industry
  • Equipment and Supplies/adverse effects
  • Ergonomics/methods
  • Hand
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Occupational Health/standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Vibration/adverse effects

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