Vocal fold scars: a common classification proposal by the American Laryngological Association and European Laryngological Society

Anastasios Hantzakos, Frederik G. Dikkers, Antoine Giovanni, Michael S. Benninger, Marc Remacle, Elisabeth V. Sjögren, Peak Woo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Vocal fold scar is one the most challenging benign laryngeal pathologies. The purpose of this paper is to propose a classification that will allow for a common description of this entity between laryngologists, prevent discrepancies in interpretation, allow for comparison of related studies, and offer a training tool for young laryngologists. Methods/Results: Based on the depth and laterality of scarring, we propose 4 types: type I, characterized by atrophy of lamina propria with/without affected epithelium; type II, where the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle are affected; type III, where the scar is located on the anterior commissure; type IV, which includes extended scar formation in both anteroposterior and rostro-caudal axis with significant loss of vocal fold mass. Conclusion: We believe that our proposal is comprehensive and encompasses all existing iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic etiologies in a simple and concise manner. It also serves its purpose as a descriptive, comparative, and training tool.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2289-2292
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

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