Nowadays, it is generally appreciated that studies in the medical field should not only include sex-related aspects but also consider age. In the past, taking the era of Hippocrates as a starting point for the Western medical sciences, such aspects were less urgent and barely relevant. However, considering such details during daily life became increasingly important as the traditional roles of men and women in society and household converged. In the Western world, this fundamental transition process started recently and is advancing at an accelerated pace. Research about the role of women has also evolved, starting from plain history about the lives of women to a description of the relation between men and women, resulting in the gender concept. The present survey highlights a historical selection of observations referring to the impact of men and women on the medical sciences, as patient, study object, and professional. Whenever relevant, focus will be on the field of cardiovascular investigations as documented in the Western world. Rather than being exhaustive, we focus on a few remarkable icons, including Trota of Salerno, Hildegard von Bingen, and Miguel Serveto.
|Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology