Combining Radiotherapy With Anti-angiogenic Therapy and Immunotherapy; A Therapeutic Triad for Cancer?

Ruben S. A. Goedegebuure, Leonie K. de Klerk, Adam J. Bass, Sarah Derks, Victor L. J. L. Thijssen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Radiotherapy has been used for the treatment of cancer for over a century. Throughout this period, the therapeutic benefit of radiotherapy has continuously progressed due to technical developments and increased insight in the biological mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to irradiation. In order to further improve radiotherapy efficacy, there is a mounting interest in combining radiotherapy with other forms of therapy such as anti-angiogenic therapy or immunotherapy. These strategies provide different opportunities and challenges, especially with regard to dose scheduling and timing. Addressing these issues requires insight in the interaction between the different treatment modalities. In the current review, we describe the basic principles of the effects of radiotherapy on tumor vascularization and tumor immunity and vice versa. We discuss the main strategies to combine these treatment modalities and the hurdles that have to be overcome in order to maximize therapeutic effectivity. Finally, we evaluate the outstanding questions and present future prospects of a therapeutic triad for cancer.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3107
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Issue numberJAN
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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