Background: The Warshaw (WT) and the Kimura (KT) techniques are both used for open or minimally invasive (MI) spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP). Multicenter studies on long-term outcome of WT and KT are lacking. Methods: Multicenter retrospective study with transversal follow-up moment, including patients who underwent SPDP from 2000 to 2017 at three high-volume centers in Italy and the Netherlands. Primary endpoint was the incidence of short and long term complications. Patients without regular follow-up were interviewed about symptoms and complications. Results: In total, 164 patients were enrolled, 55 WT (33.5%) and 109 kT (66.5%), of which 95 (57.9%) MI. There was no 30-day mortality (0%).The only significant difference in short-term outcome was more delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after WT (9.1% vs 1.8%, p = 0.043). MI-SPDP was associated with less blood loss (median 150 vs 250 ml, respectively, p < 0.001), less DGE (0% vs 10%, p = 0.002), less abdominal abscesses (8.4% vs 18.4%, p = 0.03) and less splenic infarctions (3.2% vs. 13%, p = 0.042), than open SPDP. Long-term follow-up (median 41 months) was available for 111 patients (67.7%) of whom 18 (16.2%) had an SPDP-related long-term sequela, mostly perigastric varices (n = 11, 9%) but without differences between WT and KT. Less long-term sequelae were reported after MI as compared to open SPDP (12.5% vs 21.2%, p = 0.032). Conclusions: In this international retrospective study, the WT and KT had comparable short- and long-term outcomes. If a KT does not seem feasible during SPDP, a WT is recommended, rather than performing a splenectomy. MI-SPDP was associated with less short- and long term complications as compared to an open SPDP.
- Minimally invasive pancreatic resection
- Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
- Pancreatic resection
- Parenchyma-sparing pancreatic resection
- Spleen-preserving pancreatectomy