2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: To enable successful inclusion of electroencephalography (EEG) outcome measures in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials, we retrospectively mapped the progression of resting-state EEG measures over time in amyloid-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to AD. Methods: Resting-state 21-channel EEG was recorded in 148 amyloid-positive AD patients (MCI, n = 88; dementia due to AD, n = 60). Two or more EEG recordings were available for all subjects. We computed whole-brain and regional relative power (i.e., theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10 Hz), alpha2 (10-13 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz)), peak frequency, signal variability (i.e., theta permutation entropy), and functional connectivity values (i.e., alpha and beta corrected amplitude envelope correlation, theta phase lag index, weighted symbolic mutual information, inverted joint permutation entropy). Whole-group linear mixed effects models were used to model the development of EEG measures over time. Group-wise analysis was performed to investigate potential differences in change trajectories between the MCI and dementia subgroups. Finally, we estimated the minimum sample size required to detect different treatment effects (i.e., 50% less deterioration, stabilization, or 50% improvement) on the development of EEG measures over time, in hypothetical clinical trials of 1- or 2-year duration. Results: Whole-group analysis revealed significant regional and global oscillatory slowing over time (i.e., increased relative theta power, decreased beta power), with strongest effects for temporal and parieto-occipital regions. Disease severity at baseline influenced the EEG measures’ rates of change, with fastest deterioration reported in MCI patients. Only AD dementia patients displayed a significant decrease of the parieto-occipital peak frequency and theta signal variability over time. We estimate that 2-year trials, focusing on amyloid-positive MCI patients, require 36 subjects per arm (2 arms, 1:1 randomization, 80% power) to detect a stabilizing treatment effect on temporal relative theta power. Conclusions: Resting-state EEG measures could facilitate early detection of treatment effects on neuronal function in AD patients. Their sensitivity depends on the region-of-interest and disease severity of the study population. Conventional spectral measures, particularly recorded from temporal regions, present sensitive AD treatment monitoring markers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number182
JournalAlzheimer's Research and Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Clinical trial design
  • Electroencephalography
  • Functional endpoint
  • Longitudinal
  • Resting state
  • Sample size

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