Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia and early-stage adenocarcinoma is amenable to curative treatment by endoscopic resection. Histopathological correlation has established that mucosal cancer has minimal risk of nodal metastases and that long-term complete remission can be achieved. Although surgery is the gold-standard treatment once there is submucosal involvement, even T1sm1 (submucosal invasion ≤ 500 μm) cases without additional risk factors for nodal metastases might also be cured with endoscopic resection. Endoscopic resection is foremost an initial diagnostic procedure, and once histopathological assessment confirms that curative criteria are met, it will be considered curative. Endoscopic resection may be achieved by endoscopic mucosal resection, which, although easy to perform with relatively low risk, is limited by an inability to achieve en bloc resection for lesions of size more than 1.5 cm. Conversely, the technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection is more technically demanding with higher risk of complications but is able to achieve en bloc resection for lesions larger than 1.5 cm. Endoscopic submucosal dissection would be particularly important in specific situations such as suspected submucosal invasion and lesion size more than 1.5 cm. In other situations, since endoscopic resection would always be combined with radiofrequency ablation to ablate the remaining Barrett's epithelium, piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection would suffice since any remnant superficial invisible dysplasia would be ablated.
- Barrett Esophagus/diagnosis
- Clinical Trials as Topic/methods
- Disease Management
- Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/methods
- Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis