Nebulized fibrinolytic agents improve pulmonary fibrinolysis but not inflammation in rat models of direct and indirect acute lung injury

Jorrit J. Hofstra, Alexander D. Cornet, Paul J. Declerck, Barry Dixon, Hamid Aslami, Alexander P. J. Vlaar, Joris J. Roelofs, Tom van der Poll, Marcel Levi, Marcus J. Schultz

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Critically ill patients frequently develop acute lung injury (ALI). Disturbed alveolar fibrin turnover, a characteristic feature of ALI, is the result of both activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Nebulized fibrinolytic agents could exert lung-protective effects, via promotion of fibrinolysis as well as anti-inflammation. Rats were challenged intratracheally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in pneumonia as a model for direct ALI, or received an intravenous bolus infusion of lipopolysaccharide, as a model for indirect ALI. Rats were randomized to nebulization of normal saline (placebo), recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), or monoclonal antibodies against plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (anti-PAI-1). Nebulized rtPA or anti-PA1-1 enhanced the bronchoalveolar fibrinolytic system, as reflected by a significant reduction of PAI-1 activity levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and a consequent increase in plasminogen activator activity (PAA) levels to supranormal values. Both treatments also significantly affected systemic fibrinolysis as reflected by a significant increase in PAA levels in plasma to supranormal levels. Neither nebulized rtPA nor anti-PA1-1 affected pulmonary inflammation. Neither treatment affected bacterial clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs in case of pneumonia. Local treatment with rtPA or anti-PA1-1 affects pulmonary fibrinolysis but not inflammation in models of direct or indirect ALI in rats
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere55262
Pages (from-to)e55262
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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