BACKGROUND: Fatigue is the most frequent and burdensome symptom of patients with diffuse glioma. It is closely linked to decreased health-related quality of life and symptoms such as depression and sleep disturbances. Currently, there is no evidence-based treatment that targets severe fatigue in patients with brain tumours. Cognitive behavioural therapy is aimed at fatigue-maintaining beliefs and behaviour. This therapy has been proven effective in reducing severe fatigue in cancer survivors and patients with multiple sclerosis. A blended therapy program combines sessions with a therapist with therapist-guided web-based therapy modules. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine the efficacy of blended cognitive behavioural therapy in treating severe fatigue in patients with diffuse glioma.

METHODS: We will include a maximum of 100 patients with diffuse glioma with clinically and radiologically stable disease and severe fatigue (i.e. Checklist Individual Strength, subscale fatigue severity ≥ 35). Patients will be randomized to blended cognitive behavioural therapy or a waiting list condition. The 12-week intervention GRIP on fatigue consists of five patient-therapist sessions and five to eight individualized web-based therapy modules supported by email contact. The primary outcome measure is fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures include sleep quality, health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, functional impairment and subjective and objective cognitive functioning. Primary and secondary outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and after 14 and 24 weeks. Magnetoencephalography and MRI will be used to evaluate potential biomarkers for intervention success. This trial has a Bayesian design: we will conduct multiple interim analyses to test for efficacy or futility of the trial. This is the first trial within the GRIP trial platform: a platform developing four to five different interventions for the most common symptoms in patients with diffuse glioma.

DISCUSSION: The results of the GRIP on fatigue trial will provide information about the efficacy of this intervention on fatigue in patients with diffuse glioma. Multiple other outcomes and possible predictors of treatment success will also be explored.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL8711 . Registered on 14 June 2020.

Original languageEnglish
Article number568
Pages (from-to)568
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • Blended cognitive behavioural therapy
  • Cancer
  • Digital health
  • Fatigue
  • Glioma
  • Health-related quality of life
  • Online intervention
  • Psychosocial intervention
  • Web-based

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