Resuscitation with Valproic Acid Alters Inflammatory Genes in a Porcine Model of Combined Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock

Ted Bambakidis, Simone E. Dekker, Martin Sillesen, Baoling Liu, Craig N. Johnson, Guang Jin, Helga E. de Vries, Yongqing Li, Hasan B. Alam

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock (TBI+HS) elicit a complex inflammatory response that contributes to secondary brain injury. There is currently no proven pharmacologic treatment for TBI+HS, but modulation of the epigenome has been shown to be a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates the expression of cerebral inflammatory gene profiles in a large animal model of TBI+HS. Ten Yorkshire swine were subjected to computer-controlled TBI+HS (40% blood volume). After 2 h of shock, animals were resuscitated with Hextend (HEX) or HEX+VPA (300 mg/kg, n = 5/group). Six hours after resuscitation, brains were harvested, RNA was isolated, and gene expression profiles were measured using a porcine microarray. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA), gene ontology (GO), Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (PGSEA), and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) were used for pathway analysis. Key microarray findings were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IPA analysis revealed that VPA significantly down-regulated the complement system (p < 0.001), natural killer cell communication (p < 0.001), and dendritic cell maturation (p < 0.001). DAVID analysis indicated that a cluster of inflammatory pathways held the highest rank and gene enrichment score. Real-time PCR data confirmed that VPA significantly down-expressed genes that ultimately regulate nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB)-mediated production of cytokines, such as TYROBP, TREM2, CCR1, and IL-1β. This high-throughput analysis of cerebral gene expression shows that addition of VPA to the resuscitation protocol significantly modulates the expression of inflammatory pathways in a clinically realistic model of TBI+HS.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1514-1521
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2016


  • genomics
  • in vivo studies
  • inflammation
  • therapeutic approaches for the treatment of central nervous system injury
  • traumatic brain injury

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