Right dose, right now: bedside, real-time, data-driven, and personalised antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock—a two-centre randomised clinical trial

Luca F. Roggeveen, Tingjie Guo, Lucas M. Fleuren, Ronald Driessen, Patrick Thoral, Reinier M. van Hest, Ron A. A. Mathot, Eleonora L. Swart, Harm-Jan de Grooth, Bas van den Bogaard, Armand R. J. Girbes, Rob J. Bosman, Paul W. G. Elbers

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Adequate antibiotic dosing may improve outcomes in critically ill patients but is challenging due to altered and variable pharmacokinetics. To address this challenge, AutoKinetics was developed, a decision support system for bedside, real-time, data-driven and personalised antibiotic dosing. This study evaluates the feasibility, safety and efficacy of its clinical implementation. Methods: In this two-centre randomised clinical trial, critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock were randomised to AutoKinetics dosing or standard dosing for four antibiotics: vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, and ceftriaxone. Adult patients with a confirmed or suspected infection and either lactate > 2 mmol/L or vasopressor requirement were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was pharmacokinetic target attainment in the first 24 h after randomisation. Clinical endpoints included mortality, ICU length of stay and incidence of acute kidney injury. Results: After inclusion of 252 patients, the study was stopped early due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the ciprofloxacin intervention group, the primary outcome was obtained in 69% compared to 3% in the control group (OR 62.5, CI 11.4–1173.78, p < 0.001). Furthermore, target attainment was faster (26 h, CI 18–42 h, p < 0.001) and better (65% increase, CI 49–84%, p < 0.001). For the other antibiotics, AutoKinetics dosing did not improve target attainment. Clinical endpoints were not significantly different. Importantly, higher dosing did not lead to increased mortality or renal failure. Conclusions: In critically ill patients, personalised dosing was feasible, safe and significantly improved target attainment for ciprofloxacin. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered at Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), NL6501/NTR6689 on 25 August 2017 and at the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT), 2017-002478-37 on 6 November 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Article number265
JournalCritical Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • Clinical decision support
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Sepsis
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring

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