1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: There is a need in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) treatment for biomarkers that monitor neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, treatment response, and disease progression despite treatment. Objective: To assess the value of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (sGFAP) as a biomarker for clinical disease progression and brain volume measurements in natalizumab-treated RRMS patients. Methods: sGFAP and neurofilament light (sNfL) were measured in an observational cohort of natalizumab-treated RRMS patients at baseline, +3, +12, and +24 months and at the last sample follow-up (median 5.17 years). sGFAP was compared between significant clinical progressors and non-progressors and related to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of the whole brain, ventricle, thalamus, and lesion. The relationship between sGFAP and sNfL was assessed. Results: A total of 88 patients were included, and 47.7% progressed. sGFAP levels at baseline were higher in patients with gadolinium enhancement (1.3-fold difference, p = 0.04) and decreased in 3 months of treatment (adj. p < 0.001). No association was found between longitudinal sGFAP levels and progressor status. sGFAP at baseline and 12 months was significantly associated with normalized ventricular (positively), thalamic (negatively), and lesion volumes (positively). Baseline and 12-month sGFAP predicted annualized ventricle volume change rate after 1 year of treatment. sGFAP correlated with sNfL at baseline (p < 0.001) and last sample follow-up (p < 0.001) but stabilized earlier. Discussion: sGFAP levels related to MRI markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1229-1239
Number of pages11
Issue number10
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • MRI volumetrics
  • Multiple scleroris
  • disability-progression
  • glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein
  • natalizumab
  • neurofilament light

Cite this