Objective: Relapse of AML after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has a poor prognosis, and standard of care therapy is lacking. Early (<6 months) relapse is associated with dismal outcome, while the majority of relapses occur early after transplantation. A more precise indication which patients could benefit from reinduction therapy is warranted. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 83 patients with postallogeneic HSCT relapse. Patients were divided based on intention to treat (curative vs supportive care). Results: Of the 50 patients treated with curative intent, 44% reached complete remission (CR) upon reinduction chemotherapy, and of these patients, 50% survived. Two survivors reached CR after immunotherapy (donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), without reinduction chemotherapy). Sixty-nine percent of the survivors had received high-intensity cytarabine treatment, followed by immunologic consolidation. Relapse <3 months after transplantation was predictive for adverse survival (P =.004), but relapse <6 months was not. In fact, >50% of the survivors had a relapse <6 months. Conclusion: We confirmed the dismal prognosis of postallogeneic HSCT relapse. Importantly, our data demonstrate that patients fit enough to receive high-dose chemotherapy, even when relapse occurred <6 months, had the best chance to obtain durable remissions, in particular when immunologic consolidation was performed after reaching CR.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-499
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean journal of haematology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • acute myeloid leukemia
  • allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • graft-versus-leukemia
  • outcome

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