CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein delta (C/EBPδ) is a transcription factor involved in differentiation and inflammation. While sparsely expressed in adult tissues, aberrant expression of C/EBPδ has been associated with different cancers. Initially, re-expression of C/EBPδ in cell cultures limited tumor cell proliferation, assigning it a tumor suppressor role. However, opposing observations were made in pre-clinical models and patients, suggesting that C/EBPδ not only mediates cell proliferation but dictates a broader spectrum of tumorigenesis-related effects. It is now widely accepted that C/EBPδ contributes to an inflammatory, tumor-promoting microenvironment, aids hypoxia adaption and contributes to the recruitment of blood vessels for improved nutrient supply to tumor cells and facilitated extravasation. This review summarizes the work published on this transcription factor in the field of cancer over the past decade. It points out areas in which a consensus on C/EBPδ’s role appears to emerge and seek to explain seemingly contradictory results.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103983
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023


  • Cancer
  • Differentiation
  • Drug resistance
  • Hypoxia
  • Inflammation

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