Variability of physiological brain perfusion in healthy subjects - A systematic review of modifiers. Considerations for multi-center ASL studies

Patricia Clement, Henk-Jan Mutsaerts, Lena Václavů, Eidrees Ghariq, Francesca B. Pizzini, Marion Smits, Marjan Acou, Jorge Jovicich, Ritva Vanninen, Mervi Kononen, Roland Wiest, Egill Rostrup, António J. Bastos-Leite, Elna-Marie Larsson, Eric Achten

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


Quantitative measurements of brain perfusion are influenced by perfusion-modifiers. Standardization of measurement conditions and correction for important modifiers is essential to improve accuracy and to facilitate the interpretation of perfusion-derived parameters. An extensive literature search was carried out for factors influencing quantitative measurements of perfusion in the human brain unrelated to medication use. A total of 58 perfusion modifiers were categorized into four groups. Several factors (e.g., caffeine, aging, and blood gases) were found to induce a considerable effect on brain perfusion that was consistent across different studies; for other factors, the modifying effect was found to be debatable, due to contradictory results or lack of evidence. Using the results of this review, we propose a standard operating procedure, based on practices already implemented in several research centers. Also, a theory of ' deep MRI physiotyping' is inferred from the combined knowledge of factors influencing brain perfusion as a strategy to reduce variance by taking both personal information and the presence or absence of perfusion modifiers into account. We hypothesize that this will allow to personalize the concept of normality, as well as to reach more rigorous and earlier diagnoses of brain disorders
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1418-1437
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism
Issue number9 special issue
Early online date2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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