BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of peripheral immune cells in the disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

METHODS: We comprehensively mapped peripheral immune changes in AD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia compared to controls, using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF).

RESULTS: We found an adaptive immune signature in AD, and specifically highlight the accumulation of PD1+ CD57+ CD8+ T effector memory cells re-expressing CD45RA in the MCI stage of AD. In addition, several innate and adaptive immune cell subsets correlated to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD neuropathology and measures for cognitive decline. Intriguingly, subsets of memory T and B cells were negatively associated with CSF biomarkers for tau pathology, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in AD patients. Lastly, we established the influence of the APOE ε4 allele on peripheral immunity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate significant peripheral immune alterations associated with both early and late clinical stages of AD, emphasizing the necessity for further investigation into how these changes influence underlying brain pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number38
Pages (from-to)38
JournalMolecular Neurodegeneration
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2024


  • APOE
  • Adaptive immunity
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Neuroinflammation
  • T cells
  • TEMRA cells

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